Sperm can be misshaped based on the size of the head, having an extra head, and having no head or tail. Other sperm defects include bent tail, coiled-tail.
Electron microscopy revealed coiling of tail filaments within the plasma membrane, resembling HOS. Some seminal coiled sperm and most.
Abnormal sperm morphology is classified as defects in the head, midpiece or tail of 5), tails of irregular width, coiled tails, as well as any combination of these.